Cognitive apprenticeship makes thinking visible and helps learner see the processes of work (Brown et al, 1991), and originally came from traditional apprenticeship that a novice learns by observing experts, and then they gradually take on responsibility the work until mastering skills and meeting the goal. In cognitive apprenticeship, collaboration work between experts and learners is also important in learning process. This method provides learning experience in hands-on training in various possible problem-solving situations.
"A major direction in current cognitive research is to attempt to formulate explicitly the strategies and skills underlying expert practice, to make them a legitimate focus of teaching in schools and other learning environment." (P. 480)
- Modeling: Novices build a concept of the task by watching the expert's demonstration. The expert demonstrates a task clearly.
- Coaching: While the novice practiced, the expert provides hints, feedback or reminders to bring his/her performance closer to the expert's
- Scaffolding: It is the process of supporting for the novice to perform the task until he/she masters the task. As the novice getting used to the task, he/she gets less supports from the expert.
- Articulation: The expert makes student articulate their knowledge, reasoning, or problem solving processes in a domain (Brown, )
- Reflection: In this part, the novice compares their own problem-solving processes with those of an expert, other students, and ultimately, an internal cognitive model of expertise (Brown,). Through this process, students remind again the task and analyze their performance.
- Exploration: The expert provides a room for the students to solve the problem by oneself, and fades supports naturally in problem setting.
Cognitive apprenticeship in collaborated learning is not only to master a task, but also to accumulate more experience for learners. The collaboration with various levels of learners provides more opportunities to get possible answers of a single problem. This method can apply classroom setting environment as well as online learning communities.
Collins, A., Brown, J. S., & Newman, S. E. (1989). Cognitive apprenticeship: teaching the crafts of reading, writing, and mathematics. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.)