## Problem-based Approach

Problem-based approach is rooted in experienced-based education. Through this approach students challenge to learn through engagement in a real problem. Students learn through the experience of solving problems, they can learn both content and thinking strategies (Savery & Duffy, 1995 ). They engage with the problem, generate ideas and possible solution, determine their knowledge which they know or do not know, establish learning goals, conduct research to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to develop a viable solution to the problem, reflect on the problem utilizing the new information, and reflect on their problem-solving process (Savery & Duffy, 1995)

PBI gives importance more on learning not teaching, so that it is an instructional student-centered approach. Using authentic problem solving tasks engages student to enhance their motivation and learning. Students will conduct research, integrate practice, and apply their knowledge and skills to solve the problem.

There are detail description of a set of Generic PBL essentials, which provided by the website for the PBL initiative (http://pbli.org)

- Students must have the responsibility on learning. The ownership by oneself increases learning more effectively.
- The problem simulations used in problem-based learning must be ill-structured and allows for free inquiry

- Learning should be integrated from a wide range of disciplines or subjects

- Collaboration work is essential

- What students learn during their self-directed learning must be applied back to the problem with reanalysis and resolution.
- A closing analysis of what has been learned from work with the problem and a discussion of what concepts and principles have been learned are essential.
- Self and peer assessment should be carried out at the completion of each problem and at the end of every curricular unit.
- The activities carried out in problem-based learning must be those valued in the real world
- Student examination must measure student progress towards the goals of problem-based learning.
- Problem-based learning must be the pedagogical base in the curriculum and not part of a didactic curriculum.

* The list above is originated from the article "Overview of problem-based learning."

Reference: Savery, R., J.(2006), Overview of problem-based learning: Definitions and Distinctions, Interdisciplinary Journal

of Problem-based learning, Vol 1-1

Savery, J.R., & Duffy, T.M., (1995), Problem-based learning: An instructional model and its consturctivist

framework. In B. Wilson, (Ed.), Cosntructivist learning environments: Case studies in instructional design

(pp. 135-148). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Tehcnology.